1)         What is SAP R/3?

Ans      SAP R/3 refers to Systems Application and Product for data processing Real-time having a 3 tier architecture i.e. Presentation layer, Application layer and Database layer.

2)         What are the programming standards followed?

3)         What are the contents in technical specifications?

Ans      There are five contents in Technical Settings: Data Class, Size Category, Buffering Permission, Buffering Type and Logging.

4)         What is an instance?

Ans      When you call a function module, an instance of its function group plus its data, is loaded into the memory area of the internal session. An ABAP program can load several instances by calling function modules from different function groups.

5)         How to take care of performance in ABAP Development?

6)         What is Function group? Difference between function group and function module?

Ans      Function Groups act as containers for Function Modules that logically belong together.

            Function Groups                                  

1)      These cannot be defined in a Function Module.

2)      It cannot be called.

3)      They are containers for Function Module.


Function Modules


1)      These must be defined in a Function Group.

2)      It can be called from any program.

3)      They are not containers for Function Group.           


7)         What is the difference between 'Select single * ' and 'Select upto 1 rows'?

Ans      ‘Select single *’ – The result of the selection should be a single entry. If it is not possible to identify a unique entry, the system uses the first line of the selection. For e.g. 





WHERE EMPNO = ‘00101’ AND DEPTNO = ‘0010’.




            Select upto 1 rows -


8)         What Function does data dictionary perform?

Ans      Central information repository for application and system data. The ABAP Dictionary contains data definitions (metadata) that allow you to describe all of the data structures in the system (like tables, views, and data types) in one place. This eliminates redundancy.

 9)         Difference between domain and data element? What are aggregate object?

Ans      Domain - Specifies the technical attributes of a data element - its data type, length, possible values, and appearance on the screen. Each data element has an underlying domain. A single domain can be the basis for several data elements. Domains are objects in the ABAP Dictionary.

            Data Element - Describes the business function of a table field. Its technical attributes are based on a domain, and its business function is described by its field labels and documentation.

            Aggregate Object – Views, Match Code and Lock objects are called aggregate objects because they are formed from several related table.

10)       What is view? Different types of view. Explain?

Ans      View - A view is a virtual table containing fields from one or more tables. A virtual table that does not contain any data, but instead provides an application-oriented view of one or more ABAP Dictionary tables.

             Different Types of View:

 1)      Maintenance

2)      Database – It is on more than two tables.

3)      Projection – It is only on one table.

4)      Help

 11)       Can u print decimals in type N? What is difference between float and packed data type?

Ans      No, we cannot print decimals in type N because decimal places are not permitted with N

data type.

             Float Data Type: It cannot be declared in Parameters.

             Packed Number: It can be declared in Parameters. For e.g.

             PARAMETERS : A(4) TYPE P DECIMALS 2,

                                          B(4) TYPE P DECIMALS 2.

             DATA : C(4) TYPE P DECIMALS 2.

           C = A + B.

            WRITE : / ‘THE SUM IS’ , C.


12)       What is step-loop? Explain all the steps?

Ans      A step loop is a repeated series of field-blocks in a screen. Each block can contain one or more fields, and can extend over more than one line on the screen.

Step loops as structures in a screen do not have individual names. The screen can contain more than one step-loop, but if so, you must program the LOOP...ENDLOOPs in the flow logic accordingly. The ordering of the LOOP...ENDLOOPs must exactly parallel the order of the step loops in the screen. The ordering tells the system which loop processing to apply to which loop. Step loops in a screen are ordered primarily by screen row, and secondarily by screen column.

Transaction TZ61 (development class SDWA) implements a step loop version of the table you saw in transaction TZ60.

Static and Dynamic Step Loops

Step loops fall into two classes: static and dynamic. Static step loops have a fixed size that cannot be changed at runtime. Dynamic step loops are variable in size. If the user re-sizes the window, the system automatically increases or decreases the number of step loop blocks displayed. In any given screen, you can define any number of static step loops, but only a single dynamic one.

You specify the class for a step loop in the Screen Painter. Each loop in a screen has the attributes Looptype (fixed=static, variable=dynamic) and Loopcount. If a loop is fixed, the Loopcount tells the number of loop-blocks displayed for the loop. This number can never change.

Programming with static and dynamic step loops is essentially the same. You can use both the LOOP and LOOP AT statements for both types.

Looping in a Step Loop

When you use LOOP AT <internal-table> with a step loop, the system automatically displays the step loop with vertical scroll bars. The scroll bars, and the updated (scrolled) table display, are managed by the system.

Use the following additional parameters if desired:

  • FROM <line1> and TO <line2>
  • CURSOR <scroll-var>




13)       What is the initial value and maximum length of all data type?



Data Type

Initial field length

Valid field length

Initial value


Numeric types





Integer (whole number)





Floating point number



1 – 16


Packed number

Character types



1 – 65535

'     '

Text field (alphanumeric characters)





Date field (Format: YYYYMMDD)



1 – 65535

'0 … 0'

Numeric text field (numeric characters)





Time field (format: HHMMSS)

Hexadecimal type



1 – 65535

X'0 … 0'

Hexadecimal field


14)       What are the ways to find out the tables used in the program?






15)       Can you have two detail lists from the basic list at the same time?

If yes how and if no why?






16)       What are the different functions used in sap script? What are the parameters used in each Function?

Ans      There are three different functions used in SAP Script:


1)      OPEN_FORM

2)      WRITE_FORM

3)      CLOSE_FORM


Parameters in Each Function:


1)      OPEN_FORM –




2)      WRITE_FORM –





17)       What is sequence of event triggered in report?

Ans      There are 6 events in report:


1)      Initialization

2)      At Selection-Screen

3)      Start-of-Selection

4)      Get

5)      Get Late

6)      End-of-Selection

7)      Top-of-Page

8)      End-of-Page

9)      At Line Selection

10)  At User Command

11)  At PF (nn)


18)       What are standard layouts sets in the SAP Script?

Ans      There are four standard layouts in the SAP Script:


1)      Header

2)      Logo         

3)      Main Window

4)      Footer


19)       What function module upload data from application server?






20)       What are the various types of selection screen event?





21)       What do you know about a client?






22)       What are the system fields? Explain?

Ans      The ABAP system fields are active in all ABAP programs. They are filled by the runtime environment, and you can query their values in a program to find out particular states of the system. Although they are variables, you should not assign your own values to them, since this may overwrite information that is important for the normal running of the program. However, there are some isolated cases in which you may need to overwrite a system variable. For example, by assigning a new value to the field SY-LSIND, you can control navigation within details lists.


23)       What is SAP Script? What is the purpose of SAP Script? Difference between

SAP Script and Report?

Ans      SAP Script – It is the integrated text management system of the SAP R/3 System. Two types – PC Editor & Line Editor.


Reports -  It is the way to display data fetched from database table onto screen or directly output it to a printer. Two types – Classical and Interactive.


24)       What is the use of occurs in internal table? Can u change occurs value in program?

Ans      Use of Occurs - If you use the OCCURS parameter, the value of the INITIAL SIZE of the table is returned to the variable <n>


                        Data :  Begin of ITAB occurs 0,


                        End of ITAB.


Occurs or Initial Size – to specify the initial amount of memory that should be assigned to the table.


            Yes, we can change the occurs value in program but output remains the same.


25)       Difference between SY-TABIX and SY-INDEX? Where it is used?

Can u check SY-SUBRC after perform?

Ans      SY-TABIX - Current line of an internal table. SY-TABIX is set by the statements below, but only for index tables. The field is either not set or is set to 0 for hashed tables.

  • APPEND sets SY-TABIX to the index of the last line of the table, that is, it contains the overall number of entries in the table.
  • COLLECT sets SY-TABIX to the index of the existing or inserted line in the table. If the table has the type HASHED TABLE, SY-TABIX is set to 0.
  • LOOP AT sets SY-TABIX to the index of the current line at the beginning of each loop lass. At the end of the loop, SY-TABIX is reset to the value that it had before entering the loop. It is set to 0 if the table has the type HASHED TABLE.
  • READ TABLE sets SY-TABIX to the index of the table line read. If you use a binary search, and the system does not find a line, SY-TABIX contains the total number of lines, or one more than the total number of lines. SY-INDEX is undefined if a linear search fails to return an entry.
  • SEARCH <itab> FOR sets SY-TABIX to the index of the table line in which the search string is found.

SY_INDEX - In a DO or WHILE loop, SY-INDEX contains the number of loop passes including the current pass.




26)       Difference between UPLOAD and WS_UPLOAD?

Ans      UPLOAD - File transfer with dialog from presentation server file to internal table. Data which is available in a file on the presentation server is transferred in an internal table. ASCII & Binary files can be transferred.


WS_UPLOAD - To read data from the presentation server into an internal table without a user dialog, use the function module WS_UPLOAD. The most important parameters are listed below.


Parameters Function
CODEPAGE Only for upload under DOS: Value IBM
FILETYPE File type


27)       Why did u switch to SAP?



28)       What is a Logical Database?

Ans      Logical Databases are special ABAP programs that retrieve data and make it available to application programs.


Use of LDB – is used to read data from database tables by linking them to executable ABAP programs.


29)       What are the events used for Logical Database?

Ans      Two Events –


1)         GET - This is the most important event for executable programs that use a logical database. It occurs when the logical database has read a line from the node <table> and made it available to the program in the work area declared using the statement NODES <table>. The depth to which the logical database is read is determined by the GET statements


2)        PUT - The PUT statement directs the program flow according to the structure of  

            the logical database.


30)       What is the difference between Get and Get Late?

Ans      GET - After the logical database has read an entry from the node <table>.


GET LATE - After all of the nodes of the logical database have been processed that are below <table> in the database hierarchy.


31)       What are the data types of Internal Tables?

Ans      There are three types:


1)      Line

2)      Key

3)      Table



32)       What are the events used in ABAP in the order of execution?

Ans      Events are:




3.      AT SELECTION-SCREEN ON <field>


5.      TOP-OF-PAGE


7.      END-OF-PAGE




11.  AT PF<NN>

12.  GET

13.  GET LATE.

14.  AT User Command


33)       What are Interactive Reports?

Ans      An output list which displays just the basic details & allow user to interact, so that a new list is populated based on user-selection. With interactive list, the user can actively control data retrieval and display during the session.


34)       What are the commands used for interactive reports?

Ans      Top-of-Page during line-selection


35)       What are the system fields u have worked with? Explain?

Ans      I had worked with the following (30) system fields:


1)      SY-DBSYS           -           Central Database

2)      SY-HOST             -           Server

3)      SY-OPSYS           -           Operating System

4)      SY-SAPRL            -           SAP Release

5)      SY-SYSID            -           System Name

6)      SY-LANGU          -           User Logon Language

7)      SY-MANDT         -           Client

8)      SY-UNAME         -           Logon User Name

9)      SY-DATLO           -           Local Date

10)  SY-DATUM          -           Server Date

11)  SY-TIMLO           -           Local Time

12)  SY-UZEIT             -           Server Time

13)  SY-DYNNR          -           Screen Number

14)  SY-REPID -           Current ABAP program

15)  SY-TCODE           -           Transaction Code

16)  SY-ULINE            -           Horizontal Line

17)  SY-VLINE            -           Vertical Line

18)  SY-INDEX            -           Number of current loop Pass

19)  SY-TABIX            -           Current line of internal table

20)  SY-DBCNT          -           Number of table entries processed

21)  SY-SUBRC           -           Return Code

22)  SY-UCOMM        -           Function Code

23)  SY-LINCT            -           Page Length of list

24)  SY-LINNO           -           Current Line

25)  SY-PAGNO          -           Current Page Number

26)  SY-LSIND            -           Index of List

27)  SY-MSGID           -           Message Class

28)  SY-MSGNO         -           Message Number

29)  SY-MSGTY          -           Message Type

30)  SY-SPONO          -           Spool number during printing


36)       What is the difference between Primary key and Unique Key?

Ans      Primary Key – It can accepts 0 value and cannot be NULL.

            Unique Key – It can be NULL. 


37)       What is the transaction code for Table maintenance?

Ans      SM30


38)       If u are using Logical Databases how will u modify the selection-screen elements?

Ans      Select-options  : dname for deptt-dname.


39)       What is an RFC?

Ans      Remote Function Call



40)       If u are using RFC and passing values to a remote system how does it work?



41)       What are the events in Screen Programming?

Ans      There are two events in Screen Programming:


  1. PBO (Process Before Output) – Before the screen is displayed, the PBO event is processed.
  2. PAI (Process After Input) – When the user interacts with the screen, the PAI event is processed.
  3. POH (Process On Help) - are triggered when the user requests field help (F1). You can program the appropriate coding in the corresponding event blocks. At the end of processing, the system carries on processing the current screen.
  4. POV (Process On Value) - are triggered when the user requests possible values help (F4). You can program the appropriate coding in the corresponding event blocks. At the end of processing, the system carries on processing the current screen.



42)       What is the significance of HIDE?

Ans      Its stores the click value and display the related record in the secondary list.


43)       Where do u code the HIDE statement?

Ans      In a LOOP statement


44)       Types of BDC's?

Ans      There are two types of BDC’s:


1)      Transaction Method

2)      Session Method


45)       Advantages & Disadvantages of different types of BDC's?

Ans      Transaction Method:


1)      It is faster than session method.

2)      While executing, it starts from starting.


Session Method:


1)      It is slower than transaction method.

2)      While executing, it does not start from starting.


46)       What are the events used in Interactive Reports.

Ans      There are three events of Interactive Reports:


                                I.      At PF(nn)

                             II.      At line-selection

                           III.      At user-command


47)       What is an RDBMS?

Ans      RDBMS – Relational Database Management System. It helps to create relationship between two or more table.


48)       What standards u use to follow while coding ABAP programs?





49)       What will you code in START-OF-SELECTION & END-OF-SELECTON & why?





            APPEND ITAB.



            LOOP AT ITAB.

            WRITE : / 10 ITAB-DEPTNO.

            HIDE : ITAB-DEPTNO.





50)       What are joins and different types joins?

Ans      There are four types of Joins:


1)      Self Join

2)      Inner Join

3)      Outer Join

4)      Equi Join


51)       Which is the default join?





52)       How do u display a data in a Detail List?

Ans      By using two statements:


1)      Top-of-page during line-selection

2)      At line-selection


53)       What are the types of windows in SAP Script?

Ans      There are five Standard Layouts in SAP Script:


1)      Page

2)      Window

3)      Page Window

4)      Paragraph Format

5)      Character Format


54)       What are the function modules used in a SAP Script driver program?

Ans      There are three functions used in SAP Script:


1)      OPEN_FORM

2)      WRITE_FORM

3)      CLOSE_FORM



55)       What are Extracts?

Ans      Extracts are dynamic sequential datasets in which different lines can have different structures. We can access the individual records in an extract dataset using a LOOP.


56)       How would u go about improving the performance of a Program, which selects data from MSEG & MKPF?






57)       How does System work in case of an Interactive Report?






58)       What is LUW?

Ans      Logical Unit of Work





59)       Different types of LUWs. What r they?

Ans      Two types of LUW are:


1)      DB LUW - A database LUW is the mechanism used by the database to ensure that its data is always consistent. A database LUW is an inseparable sequence of database operations that ends with a database commit. The database LUW is either fully executed by the database system or not at all. Once a database LUW has been successfully executed, the database will be in a consistent state. If an error occurs within a database LUW, all of the database changes since the beginning of the database LUW are reversed. This leaves the database in the state it had before the transaction started.

2)      SAP LUW - A logical unit consisting of dialog steps, whose changes are written to the database in a single database LUW is called an SAP LUW. Unlike a database LUW, an SAP LUW can span several dialog steps, and be executed using a series of different work processes.


60)       What is First event triggered in program?






61)       What are various Joins? What is right outer join?





62)       How do u find out whether a file exits on the presentation server?

Ans      eps_get_directory_listing for directory




63)       Systems fields used for Interactive Lists AND Lists

Ans      Interactive System Fields:  SY-LSIND, SY-CPAGE, SY-LILLI, SY-LISEL, SY-LISTI,






64)       Logo in SAP Script?

Ans      RSTXLDMC   OR


Steps for making and inserting Logo in SAP Script:


            First Procedure:


1)      Draw the picture

2)      Save it

3)      /nSE78

4)      Write name & Choose Color

5)      Click on Import

6)      Browse picture

7)      Enter


Second Procedure


1)      /nSE71

2)      Insert

3)      Graphics

4)      Click on stored on document server

5)      Execute

6)      Choose name of BMAP


65)       What are the difference between call screen and leave screen?  

Ans      Call Screen: Calling a single screen is a special case of embedding a screen sequence. If you want to prevent the called screen from covering the current screen completely, you can use the CALL SCREEN statement with the STARTING AT and ENDING AT


            CALL SCREEN 1000.




            LEAVE SCREEN statement ends the current screen and calls the subsequent screen.

            LEAVE SCREEN.


66)       If internal table used in for all entries in empty then what happens

Ans      No, records will be displayed.


67)       If I forgot some command in SAP Script e.g.: suppress zero display - How to do find it?

Ans      Suppressing of entire screens is possible with this command.  This command allows us to perform screen processing “in the background”. Suppressing screens is useful when we are branching to list-mode from a transaction dialog step.


68)       How to write a BDC - how do u go about it?

Ans      Steps for writing BDC


1)      /nSE38

2)      Declare Tables, Data (for ITAB) and Data (for BDCITAB)

3)      Call function ‘Upload’.

4)      Write code for the First Screen, Radio Button, Filename, Change Button, Second Screen, Utilities (Create Entries), Third Screen and Save.

5)      Call transaction ‘SE11’ using BDCITAB mode ‘A’.

6)      Save, Check Errors, Activate and Execute.





69)       What is Performance tuning?






70)       Define Documentation.






71)       Brief about Testing of programs.






72)       How do u move on to the next screen in interactive reporting?

Ans      Write code of the following:


1)      Top-of-Page during line-selection

2)      At line-selection


73)       Create any functions? How to go about it?

Ans      Steps for creating the Functions:


            First Procedure:


1)      /nSE37

2)      Goto

3)      Function Group (FG)

4)      Create Group

5)      Name of FG (ZREKHA_FG)

6)      Short Text

7)      Save

8)      Local Object


Second Procedure


1)      Environment

2)      Inactive Object

3)      Function Group (ZREKHA_FG)

4)      Activate

5)      Back


Third Procedure


1)      Name of Function Module (ZREKHA_FM)

2)      Create

3)      Write FG Name (ZREKHA_FG)

4)      Short Text

5)      Save


Fourth Step:


Call function ‘ZREKHA_FM’.


74)       Advanced topics?






75)       Function modules used in F4 help.

Ans      There are two types of function modules used in F4 help:





76)       Work most on which module: Name a few tables.

Ans      Sales & Distribution Module


1)      Sales Document: Item Data                         –          VBAP

2)      Sales Document: Partner                             –          VBPA

3)      Sales Document: Header Data                    –          VBAK

4)      Sales Document Flow                                 –          VBFA

5)      Sales Document: Delivery Item Data           -           LIPS

6)      Customer Master                                        –          KNA1

7)      Material Data                                             –          MARA

8)      Conditions (Transaction Data)                     -           KONV


77)       System Table used


1)      Sales Document: Item Data                         –          VBAP

2)      Sales Document: Partner                             –          VBPA

3)      Sales Document: Header Data                    –          VBAK

4)      Sales Document Flow                                 –          VBFA

5)      Sales Document: Delivery Item Data           -           LIPS

6)      Customer Master                                        –          KNA1

7)      Material Data                                             –          MARA

8)      Conditions (Transaction Data)                     -           KONV



78)       From a table how do u find whether a material is used in another material BOM?








79)       What is read line?

Ans      READ LINE and READ CURRENT LINE – These statements are used to read data from the lines of existing list levels. These statements are closely connected to the HIDE technique.


80)       How u used logical database? How is data transferred to program? Corresponding statement in LDB.






81)       How do u suppress fields on selection screen generated by LDB?






82)       Can there be more than 1 main window in SAP Script?

Ans      No, there cannot be more than 1 main window in SAP Script because in WRITE_FORM, it asks for the parameter Window that will create the problem.   







83)       Global and local data in function modules.






84)       What are the differences between SAP memory and ABAP memory?

Ans      ABAP Memory is a memory area in the internal session (roll area) of an ABAP program. Data within this area is retained within a sequence of program calls, allowing you to pass data between programs that call one another. It is also possible to pass data between sessions using SAP Memory.

SAP Memory is a memory area to which all sessions within a SAPgui have access. You can use SAP memory either to pass data from one program to another within a session (as with ABAP memory) or to pass data from one session to another.

85)       What are differences between At selection-screen and At selection-screen output?

Ans      AT SELECTION-SCREEN event is triggered in the PAI of the selection screen once the ABAP runtime environment has passed all of the input data from the selection screen to the ABAP program.

AT SELECTION-SCREEN OUTPUT - This event block allows you to modify the selection screen directly before it is displayed.

86)       What are the events?






87)       What is get cursor field?           

Ans      GET CURSOR statement transfers the name of the screen element on which the cursor is positioned during a user action into the variable <f>.

GET CURSOR FIELD <f> [OFFSET <off>] [LINE <lin>] [VALUE <val>] LENGTH <len>].

88)       What is the inside concept in select-options?    

Ans      Select-options specify are displayed on the selection screen for the user to enter values.


Different Properties of Select-options:


1)      Visible Length

2)      Matchcode Object

3)      Memory ID

4)      Lowercase

5)      Obligatory

6)      No Display

7)      Modify ID


89)       What is the difference between occurs 1 and occurs 2?






90)       What is the difference between Free and Refresh?

Ans      Free - You can use FREE to initialize an internal table and release its memory space without first using the REFRESH or CLEAR statement. Like REFRESH, FREE works on the table body, not on the table work area. After a FREE statement, you can address the internal table again. It still occupies the amount of memory required for its header (currently 256 bytes). When you refill the table, the system has to allocate new memory space to the lines.


Refresh - This always applies to the body of the table. As with the CLEAR statement, the memory used by the table before you initialized it remains allocated. To release the memory space, use the statement


91)       What are elements?






92)       Can we have more than one selection-screen and how?

Ans      Yes, we can have more than one selection screen.


            Selection-screen begin of block honey with frame title text-101.

            Select-options : deptno for zrekha_deptt-deptno.

            Selection-screen end of block honey.


            Selection-screen begin of block honey1 with frame title text-102.

            Select-options : dname for zrekha_deptt-dname.

            Selection-screen end of block honey1.


93)       How to declare select-option as a parameter?

Ans      SELECT-OPTIONS: specify are displayed on the selection screen for the user to enter values.


            Parameters: dname like dept-dname.


            Select-options: dname for dept-dname.


94)       How can u write programmatically value help to a field without using search help and

match codes?

Ans      By using two types of function modules to be called in SAP Script:





95)       What are the differences between SE01, SE09 and SE10?

Ans      SE01    -           Correction & Transport Organizer

            SE09    -           Workbench Organizer

            SE10    -           Customizing Organizer


96)       How to set destination?








97)       What are the function module types?






98)       What are tables?

Ans      Tables : ZREKHA_EMP.


It creates a structure – the table work area in a program for the database tables, views or structure ZREKHA_EMP. The table work area has the same name as the object for which we created it. ZREKHA_EMP must be declared in the ABAP dictionary. The name and sequence of fields in the table work area ZREKHA_EMP corresponds exactly to the sequence of fields in the database table, view definition in the ABAP dictionary.


99)       What are client-dependant tables and independent tables?






100)     How to distinguish client-dependant tables from independent tables?






101)     What is the use of Table maintenance allowed?

Ans      Mark the Table maintenance allowed flag if users with the corresponding authorization may change the data in the table using the Data Browser (Transaction SE16). If the data in the table should only be maintained with programs or with the table view maintenance transaction (Transaction SM30), you should not set the flag.


102)     How to define Selection Screen?

Ans      Parameters, Select-options & Selection-Screen


103)     What are the check tables and value tables?

Ans      Check Table: The ABAP Dictionary allows you to define relationships between tables using foreign keys . A dependent table is called a foreign key table, and the referenced table is called the check table. Each key field of the check table corresponds to a field in the foreign key table. These fields are called foreign key fields. One of the foreign key fields is designated as the check field for checking the validity of values. The key fields of the check table can serve as input help for the check field.

Value Table: Prior to Release 4.0, it was possible to use the value table of a domain to provide input help. This is no longer possible, primarily because unexpected results could occur if the value table had more than one key field. It was not possible to restrict the other key fields, which meant that the environment of the field was not considered, as is normal with check tables.

In cases where this kind of value help was appropriate, you can reconstruct it by creating a search help for the data elements that use the domain in question, and using the value table as the selection method.

Check table will be at field level checking.

Value table will be at domain level checking ex: scarr table is check table for carrid.

104)     What is the difference between tables and structures?

Ans      Tables:

1)      Data is permanently stored in tables in the database.

2)      Database tables are generated from them.






1)      It contains data temporarily during program run-time.

2)      No Database tables are generated from it.          


105)     How to declare one internal table without header line without using structures?

Ans      No, we cannot declare internal table without header line and without structure because it gives error “ITAB cannot be a table, a reference, a string or contain any of these object”.


            Code with Header without Structure


            TABLES : ZREKHA_EMP.




            APPEND ITAB.



            LOOP AT ITAB.




Code without Header with Structure


            TABLES : ZREKHA_EMP.




                          EMPNAME LIKE XREKHA_EMP-EMPNAME,

                          DEPTNO LIKE XREKHA_EMP-DEPTNO,

                          END OF ITAB.



            APPEND ITAB.



            LOOP AT ITAB.




106)     What are lock objects?

Ans      Reason for Setting Lock: Suppose a travel agent want to book a flight. The customer wants to fly to a particular city with a certain airline on a certain day. The booking must only be possible if there are still free places on the flight. To avoid the possibility of overbooking, the database entry corresponding to the flight must be locked against access from other transactions. This ensures that one user can find out the number of free places, make the booking, and change the number of free places without the data being changed in the meantime by another transaction.

The R/3 System synchronizes simultaneous access of several users to the same data records with a lock mechanism. When interactive transactions are programmed, locks are set and released by calling function modules (see Function Modules for Lock Requests). These function modules are automatically generated from the definition of lock objects in the ABAP Dictionary.

            Two types of Lock: Shared and Exclusive


107)     What are datasets? What are the different syntaxes?

Ans      The sequential files (ON APPLICATION SERVER) are called datasets. They are used for file handling in SAP.



                                                                        IN [BINARY / TEXT] MODE

                                                                        AT POSITION [POSITION]

                                                                        MESSAGE [FIELD]










108)     What are the events we use in dialog programming and explain them?

Ans      There are two events in Dialog Programming i.e. screen:


  1. PBO (Process Before Output) – Before the screen is displayed, the PBO event is processed.
  2. PAI (Process After Input) – When the user interacts with the screen, the PAI event is processed.
  3. POH (Process On Help) - are triggered when the user requests field help (F1). You can program the appropriate coding in the corresponding event blocks. At the end of processing, the system carries on processing the current screen.
  4. POV (Process On Value) - are triggered when the user requests possible values help (F4). You can program the appropriate coding in the corresponding event blocks. At the end of processing, the system carries on processing the current screen.



109)     What is the difference between OPEN_FORM and CLOSE_FORM?

Ans      OPEN_FORM – This module opens layout set printing. This function must be called up before we can work with other layout set function like WRITE_FORM.


WRITE_FORM – Output text element in form window. The specified element of the layout set window entered is output. The element must be defined in the layout set.


CLOSE_FORM – End layout set printing. Form printing started with OPEN_FORM is completed. Possible closing operations on the form last opened are carried out. Form printing must be completed by this function module. If this is not carried out, nothing is printed or displayed on the screen.



110)     What are the page windows? How many main windows will be there in a page window?

Ans      Page Window: In this window, we define the margins for left, width, upper and height for the layout of Header, Logo, Main, & Footer.




111)     What are control events in a loop?

Ans      Control level processing is allowed within a LOOP over an internal table. This means that we can divide sequences of entries into groups based on the contents of certain fields.

AT <level>.
<statement block>

You can react to the following control level changes:

<level> Meaning
FIRST First line of the internal table
LAST Last line of the internal table
NEW <f> Beginning of a group of lines with the same contents in the field <f> and in the fields left of <f>
END Of <f> End of a group of lines with the same contents in the field <f> and in the fields left of <f>


112)     How to debugg a script?

Ans      Go to SE71, give layout set name, go to utilities select debugger mode on.


113)     How many maximum sessions can be open in SAPgui?

Ans      There are maximum 6 sessions open in SAPgui.


114)     SAP Scripts and ABAP programs are client dependent or not? Why?



115)     What are System Variable?

Ans      System variables have been predefined by SAP. We can use these variables in formulas or, for example, to pass on certain pieces of information to a function module. How the function called by the function module behaves depends on the type of information passed on.

At present, we can use the following system variables:

System Variable Use Meaning
SY_MODE In function modules Current mode of the PI sheet
SY_TEST In function modules Status of the PI sheet (test or active)
SY_ROW In function modules Current table line
SY_VALUE or X Generally Refers to the immediately preceding input value


116)     Is it compulsory to use all the events in Reports?






117)     What is the difference between sum and collect?           

Ans      Sum: You can only use this statement within a LOOP. If you use SUM in an AT - ENDAT block, the system calculates totals for the numeric fields of all lines in the current line group and writes them to the corresponding fields in the work area. If you use the SUM statement outside an AT - ENDAT block (single entry processing), the system calculates totals for the numeric fields of all lines of the internal table in each loop pass and writes them to the corresponding fields of the work area. It therefore only makes sense to use the SUM statement in AT...ENDAT blocks.

If the table contains a nested table, you cannot use the SUM statement. Neither can you use it if you are using a field symbol instead of a work area in the LOOP statement.



118)     What are session method and call transaction method and explain about them?

Ans      Session method – Use the BDC_OPEN_GROUP to create a session. Once we have created a session, then we can insert the batch input data into it with BDC_INSERT. Use the BDC_INSERT to add a transaction to a batch input session. We specify the transaction that is to be started in the call to BDC_INSERT. We must provide a BDCDATA structure that contains all the data required to process the transaction completely. Use the BDC_CLOSE_GROUP to close a session after we have inserted all of our batch input data into it. Once a session is closed, it can be processed.


Call Transaction -

In this method, we use CALL TRANSACTION USING to run an SAP transaction. External data does not have to be deposited in a session for later processing. Instead, the entire batch input process takes place inline in our program.


119)     If you have 10000 records in your file, which method you use in BDC?

Ans      Call transaction is faster then session method. But usually we use session method in real time...because we can transfer large amount of data from internal table to database and if any errors in a session, then process will not complete until session get correct.


120)     What are different modes of Call Transaction method and explain them?

Ans      There are three modes of Call Transaction method:


1)      A – Display All Screens                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

2)      E – Display Errors

3)      N – Background Processing



121)     What is the typical structure of an ABAP program?



122)     What are field symbols and field groups? Have you used "component idx of structure" clause with field groups?

Ans      Field Symbols – They are placeholder or symbolic names for the other fields. They do not physically reserve space for a field, but point to its contents. It can point to any data objects.


            Field-symbols <fs>      


Field Groups – Field groups does not reserve storage space but contains pointers to existing fields.


An extract dataset consists of a sequence of records. These records may have different structures. All records with the same structure form a record type. You must define each record type of an extract dataset as a field group, using the FIELD-GROUPS statement.


            Field-groups <fg>


123)     What should be the approach for writing a BDC program?


   to internal table CALLED "CONVERSION".







i) Call transaction (Write the program explicitly)

ii) Create sessions (sessions are created and processed. If success, data will transfer).


124)     What is a batch input session?

Ans      BATCH INPUT SESSION is an intermediate step between internal table and database table. Data along with the action is stored in session i.e. data for screen fields, to which screen it is passed, program name behind it, and how next screen is processed.


            Create session – BDC_OPEN_GROUP

            Insert batch input – BDC_INSERT

            Close session – BDC_CLOSE_GROUP


125)     What is the alternative to batch input session?

Ans      Call Transaction Method & Call Dialog


126)     A situation: An ABAP program creates a batch input session. We need to submit the

program and the batch session in background. How to do it?

Ans      Go to SM36 and create background job by giving job name, job class and job steps





127)     What is the difference between a pool table and a transparent table and how they are

stored at the database level?

Ans      Pool Table -


1)      Many to One Relationship.

2)      Table in the Dictionary has the different name, different number of fields, and the fields have the different name as in the R3 Table definition.

3)      It can hold only pooled tables.


Transparent Table –

1)      One to One relationship.

2)      Table in the Dictionary has the same name, same number of fields, and the fields have the same name as in the R3 Table definition.

3)      It can hold Application data.

128)     What are the problems in processing batch input sessions? How is batch input process

different from processing on line?

Ans      Two Problems: -


1) If the user forgets to opt for keep session then the session will be automatically removed from the session queue (log remains).  However, if session is processed we may delete it manually.

2) If session processing fails, data will not be transferred to SAP database table.


129)     Is Session Method, Asynchronous or Synchronous?

Ans      Synchronous


130)     What are the different types of data dictionary objects?

Ans      Different types of data dictionary objects:


1)      Tables

2)      Views

3)      Data elements

4)      Structure

5)      Domains

6)      Search Helps

7)      Local Objects

8)      Matchcode


131)     How many types of tables exist and what are they in data dictionary?

Ans      4 Types of Tables:


  1. Transparent tables - Exists with the same structure both in dictionary as well as in database exactly with the same data and fields. Both Open SQL and Native SQL can be used.
  2. Pool tables
  3. Cluster tables - These are logical tables that are arranged as records of transparent tables. One cannot use Native SQL on these tables (only Open SQL). They are not manageable directly using database system tools.
  4. Internal tables



132)     What is the step-by-step process to create a table in data dictionary?

Ans      Steps to create a table:


Step 1: creating domains (data type, field length, Range).

Step 2: creating data elements (properties and type for a table field).

Step 3: creating tables (SE11).


133)     Can a transparent table exist in data dictionary but not in the database physically?

Ans      No, Transparent table do exist with the same structure both in the dictionary as well as in the database, exactly with the same data and fields.


134)     In SAP Scripts, how will u link FORM with the Event Driven?  

Ans      In PAI, define function code and write code for the same.


135)     Can you create a table with fields not referring to data elements?

Ans      YES.  e.g.:- ITAB LIKE SPFLI.

Here we are refering to a data object (SPFLI) not data element.


136)     What is the advantage of structures? How do you use them in the ABAP programs?

Ans      GLOBAL EXISTANCE (these could be used by any other program without creating it again).


137)     What does an extract statement do in the ABAP program?

Ans      Once you have declared the possible record types as field groups and defined their structure, you can fill the extract dataset using the following statements: 




When the first EXTRACT statement occurs in a program, the system creates the extract dataset and adds the first extract record to it. In each subsequent EXTRACT statement, the new extract record is added to the dataset




When you extract the data, the record is filled with the current values of the corresponding fields.


As soon as the system has processed the first EXTRACT statement for a field group <FG>, the structure of the corresponding extract record in the extract dataset is fixed. You can no longer insert new fields into the field groups <FG> and HEADER. If you try to modify one of the field groups afterwards and use it in another EXTRACT statement, a runtime error occurs.


By processing EXTRACT statements several times using different field groups, you fill the extract dataset with records of different length and structure. Since you can modify field groups dynamically up to their first usage in an EXTRACT statement, extract datasets provide the advantage that you need not determine the structure at the beginning of the program.

138)     What is a collect statement? How is it different from append?

Ans      Collect : If an entry with the same key already exists, the COLLECT statement does not append a new line, but adds the contents of the numeric fields in the work area to the contents of the numeric fields in the existing entry.


Append – Duplicate entries occurs.


139)     What is OPEN SQL vs NATIVE SQL?

Ans      Open SQL – These statements are a subset of standard SQL. It consists of DML command (Select, Insert, Update, Delete). It can simplify and speed up database access. Buffering is partly stored in the working memory and shared memory. Data in buffer is not always up-to-date.


            Native SQL – They are loosely integrated into ABAP. It allows access to all functions containing programming interface. They are not checked and converted. They are sent directly to the database system. Programs that use Native SQL are specific to the database system for which they were written. For e.g. to create or change table definition in the ABAP.


140)     What does an EXEC SQL stmt do in ABAP? What is the disadvantage of using it?

Ans      To use a Native SQL statement, you must precede it with the EXEC SQL statement, and follow it with the ENDEXEC statement as follows:

<Native SQL statement>

There is no period after Native SQL statements. Furthermore, using inverted commas (") or an asterisk (*) at the beginning of a line in a native SQL statement does not introduce a comment as it would in normal ABAP syntax. You need to know whether table and field names are case-sensitive in your chosen database.

141)     What is the meaning of ABAP editor integrated with ABAP data dictionary?

Ans      ABAP Editor: Tool in the ABAP Workbench in which you enter the source code of ABAP programs and check their syntax. You can also navigate from the ABAP Editor to the other tools in the ABAP Workbench.

142)     What are the events in ABAP language?

Ans      The events are as follows:


1.      Initialization

2.      At selection-screen

3.      Start-of-selection

4.      End-of-selection

5.      Top-of-page

6.      End-of-page

7.      At line-selection

8.      At user-command

9.      At PF

10.  Get

11.  At New

12.  At LAST

13.  AT END



143)     What is an interactive report? What is the obvious difference of such report compared

with classical type reports?

Ans      An Interactive report is a dynamic drill down report that produces the list on users choice.


Difference: -

a) The list produced by classical report doesn't allow user to interact with the system where as the list produced by interactive report allows the user to interact with the system.

B) Once a classical report, executed user looses control where as Interactive, user has control.

C) In classical report, drilling is not possible where as in interactive, drilling is possible.


144)     What is a drill down report?

Ans      Its an Interactive report where in the user can get more relevant data by selecting explicitly.


145)     How do you write a function module in SAP? Describe.


1.      Called program - SE37 - Creating function group, function module by assigning attributes, importing, exporting, tables, and exceptions.

2.      Calling program - SE38 - In program, click pattern and write function name- provide export, import, tables, exception values.


146)     What are the exceptions in function module?

Ans      Exceptions: Our function module needs an exception that it can trigger if there are no entries in table SPFLI that meet the selection criterion. The exception NOT_FOUND serves this function.







148)     How are the date and time field values stored in SAP?

Ans      DD.MM.YYYY.  HH:MM:SS


149)     What are the fields in a BDC_Tab and BDCDATA Table?

Ans      Fields of BDC_Tab & BDCDATA Table:


            Sr.No               Fields               -           Description

            1)                     Program           -           BDC Module pool

            2)                     Dynpro -           BDC Screen Number

            3)                     Dynbegin          -           BDC Screen Start

            4)                     Fname              -           Field Name

            5)                     Fval                  -           BDC field value

150)     Name a few data dictionary objects?

Ans      Different types of data dictionary objects:


1)      Tables

2)      Views

3)      Data elements

4)      Structure

5)      Matchcode

6)      Domains

7)      Search Helps

8)      Local Objects


151)     What happens when a table is activated in DD?

Ans      When the table is activated, a physical table definition is created in the database for the table definition stored in the ABAP dictionary. The table definition is translated from the ABAP dictionary of the particular database. 


            It is available for any insertion, modification and updation of records by any user.





153)     What are matchcodes? Describe?

Ans      It is similar to table index that gives list of possible values for either primary keys or non-primary keys.


154)     What transactions do you use for data analysis?






155)     What are the elements of selection screen?

Ans      There are 5 elements of selection screen:


            Selection-screen include blocks <B>

            Selection-screen include parameters <P>

            Selection-screen include select-options <S>

            Selection-screen include comment <C>

            Selection-screen include push-button <push>


156)     What are ranges? What are number ranges?

Ans      Main function of ranges to pass data to the actual selection tables without displaying the selection screen.


            Min, Max values provided in selection screens.


It is often necessary to directly access individual records in a data structure. This is done using unique keys. Number ranges are used to assign numbers to individual database records for a commercial object, to complete the key. Such numbers are e.g. order numbers or material master numbers.


157)     What are select options and what is the diff from parameters?

Ans      Parameters : We can enter a single value.


Select-options: We can enter low and high value i.e. range has to be specify. By using NO-INTERVAL user can process only single fields.



SELECT-OPTIONS declares an internal table, which is automatically filled with values or ranges of values entered by the end user. For each SELECT-OPTIONS, the system creates a selection table.


A selection table is an internal table with fields SIGN, OPTION, LOW and HIGH. 

The type of LOW and HIGH is the same as that of <field>. 

The SIGN field can take the following values: I Inclusive (should apply) E Exclusive (should not apply)

The OPTION field can take the following values: EQ Equal GT Greater than NE Not equal BT Between LE Less than or equal NB Not between LT Less than CP Contains pattern GE Greater than or equal NP No pattern.


PARAMETERS allow users to enter a single value into an internal field within a report. 

SELECT-OPTIONS allows users to fill an internal table with a range of values. 

Select-options provide ranges where as parameters do not. 

For each PARAMETERS or SELECT-OPTIONS statement you should define text elements by choosing 

Goto - Text elements - Selection texts - Change. 

Eg:- Parameters name(30).

When the user executes the ABAP/4 program, an input field for 'name' will appear on the selection screen. You can change the comments on the left side of the input fields by using text elements as described in Selection Texts.


158)     How do you validate the selection criteria of a report? And how do you display initial

values in a selection screen?

Ans      The selection criteria is validated in the processing block of the AT SELECTION SCREEN event for the input values on the screen and respective messages can be sent.



To display initial values in the selection screen:



2)      Use DEFAULT VALUE option of PARAMETERS Statement

3)      Use SPA/GPA Parameters (PIDs).



Validate: - by using match code objects.


Display :- Parameters <name> default 'xxx'.

            Select-options <name> for spfli-carrid.


Initial values in a selection screen:


            DNO-LOW = 10.

            DNO-HIGH = 30

            SIGN I.

            OPTION NB.

            APPEND DNO.


159)     What are selection texts?






160)     What is CTS and what do you know about it?

Ans      CTS stands for Correction and Transport System. The CTS provides a range of functions that help you to choose a transport strategy optimally suited to your requirements. We recommend that you follow the transport strategy while you plan and set up your system landscape.


Correction and Transport System (CTS) is a tool that helps you to organize development projects in the ABAP Workbench and in Customizing, and then transport the changes between the SAP Systems and clients in your system landscape. This documentation provides you with an overview of how to manage changes with the CTS and essential information on setting up your system and client landscape and deciding on a transport strategy. Read and follow this documentation when planning your development project. For practical information on working with the Correction and Transport System, see Correction and Transport Organizer and Transport Management System.





161)     When a program is created and need to be transported to prodn does selection texts always go with it? If not how do you make sure? Can you change the CTS entries? How do you do it?






162)     What is the client concept in SAP? What is the meaning of client independent?

Ans      In commercial, organizational and technical terms, the client is a self-contained unit in the R3 system, with separate set of Master data and its own set of Tables. When a change is made in one client all other clients are affected in the system - this type of objects are called Client independent objects.


163)     Are programs client dependent?

Ans      Yes, group of users can access these programs with a client number.


164)     Name a few system global variables you can use in ABAP programs?




SY-LILLI is absolute number of lines from which the event was triggered.


165)     What are internal tables? How do you get the number of lines in an internal table? How to use a specific number occurs statement?


1)      It is a standard data type object, which exists only during the runtime of the program. They are used to perform table calculations on subsets of database tables and for re-organizing the contents of database tables according to users need.

2)      Using SY-DBCNT.

3)      The number of memory allocations the system need to allocate for the next record population.


166)     How do you take care of performance issues in your ABAP programs?

Ans      Performance of ABAP programs can be improved by minimizing the amount of data to be transferred. The data set must be transferred through the network to the applications, so reducing the amount of time and also reduces the network traffic.


Some measures that can be taken are: 

- Use views defined in the ABAP/4 DDIC (also has the advantage of better reusability).

- Use field list (SELECT clause) rather than SELECT *.

- Range tables should be avoided (IN operator)

- Avoid nested SELECTS. 


167)     What are datasets?

Ans      The sequential files (ON APPLICATION SERVER) are called datasets. They are used for file handling in SAP.


168)     How to find the return code of an stmt in ABAP programs?

Ans      Open SQL has 2 system fields with return codes:


1)      SY-SUBRC

2)      SY-DBCNT


Using function modules


169)     What are Conversion & Interface programs in SAP?

Ans      CONVERSION: Legacy system to flat file.

INTERFACE: Flat file to SAP system.


170)     Have you used SAP supplied programs to load master data?

Ans      SAP supplied BDC programs


RM06BBI0  (Purchase Requisitions)

RMDATIND (Material Master)

RFBIKR00  (Vendor Masters)

RFBIDE00 (Customer Master) 

RVINVB00 (Sales Order)


171)     What are the techniques involved in using SAP supplied programs? Do you prefer to

write your own programs to load master data? Why?



Þ    Identify relevant fields

Þ    Maintain transfer structure ( Predefined – first one is always session record)

Þ    Session record structure,  Header Data,  Item  ( STYPE  – record type )

Þ    Fields in session structure – STYPE, GROUP , MANDT, USERNAME , NO DATA

Þ    Fields in header structure – consists of transaction code also – STYPE, BMM00, TCODE, MATNR and Fields in Item  -  ITEMS …

Þ     Maintain transfer file – sample data set creation



172)     What are logical databases? What are the advantages/disadvantages of logical databases?

Ans      To read data from a database tables we use logical database.

A logical database provides read-only access to a group of related tables to an ABAP/4 program.


Advantages: - The programmer need not worry about the primary key for each table. Because Logical database knows how the different tables relate to each other, and can issue the SELECT command with proper where clause to retrieve the data.


1)      An easy-to-use standard user interface.

2)      Check functions, which check that user input is complete, correct, and plausible.

3)      Meaningful data selection.

4)      Central authorization checks for database accesses.

5)      Good read access performance while retaining the hierarchical data view determined by the application logic. 

6)      No need of programming for retrieval, meaning for data selection                       




Disadvantages: -


1)      If you do not specify a logical database in the program attributes, the GET events never occur.

2)      There is no ENDGET command, so the code block associated with an event ends with the next event statement (such as another GET or an END-OF-SELECTION).

3)      Fast in case of lesser no. of tables But if the table is in the lowest level of hierarchy, all upper level tables should be read so performance is slower.



173)     What specific statements do you using when writing a drill down report?





174)     What are different tools to report data in SAP? What all have you used?






175)     What are the advantages and disadvantages of ABAP query tool?

Ans      Advantages: No programming knowledge is required.


Disadvantages: Depending on the complexity of the database tables, it may not be easy for the user to select the necessary data correctly.


176)     What are the functional areas? User groups? How does ABAP query work in relation to


Ans      Functional Areas - By creating functional areas, we can initially select this data. This ensures that the data is presented to the ABAP Query user in a meaningful way to accomplish the task, and that only the data that the user may use is presented.


User Groups – A user group is a collection of users that work with about the same data and carry out similar tasks. The members of a user group can use all programs (queries) created by any user of the group. Changes to such a program are at once visible to all users. This ensures that all members of a user group use the same evaluation programs.


ABAP Query: It consists of three components – queries, functional areas and user groups. The functional areas provide the user with an initial set of data in accordance with the task to be accomplished. All users must be members of at least one user group. All members of one user group can access the same data as well as the same program (queries) to create lists.


177)     Is a logical database a requirement/must to write an ABAP query?

Ans      No, it is not must to use LDB. Apart from it, we have other options:


1)      Table join by Basis Table

2)      Direct Read of table

3)      Data Retrieval by Program


178)     What is the structure of a BDC sessions.

Ans      BDCDATA


179)     What are Change header and detail tables? Have you used them?






180)     What do you do when the system crashes in the middle of a BDC batch session?

Ans      We will look into the error log file (SM35). Check number of records already updated and delete them from input file and run BDC again.


181)     What do you do with errors in BDC batch sessions?

Ans      We look into the list of incorrect session and process it again. To correct incorrect session, we analyze the session to determine which screen and value produced the error. For small errors in data we correct them interactively otherwise modify batch input program that has generated the session or many times even the data file.


182)     How do you set up background jobs in SAP? What are the steps? What are the events

driven batch jobs?

Ans      Go to SM36 and create background job by giving job name, job class and job steps



183)     Is it possible to run host command from SAP environment? How do you run?






184)     What kind of financial periods exist in SAP? What is the relevant table for that?






185)     Does SAP handle multiple currencies? Multiple languages?

Ans      Yes.


186)     What is a currency factoring technique?






187)     How do you document ABAP programs? Do you use program documentation menu







188)     What is SAP Script and layout set?

Ans      The tool, which is used to create layout set is called SAP Script. Layout set is a design, appearance and structure of document.


189)     What are the ABAP commands that link to a layout set?

Ans      Control Commands, System Commands


190)     What is output determination?






191)     What is the field length of Packed Number? What is the default decimal of packed






192)     What are the different types of data types?

Ans      There are three types of data types:


Data Types






Elementary                                           Complex                                  References







Fixed                Variable                       Structure          Table                Data                 Object



193)     What is the syntax of Packed Number?

Ans      Data : NUM type P decimals 2.


194)     What are different types of attributes of Function Module?

Ans      There are 6 attributes of FM:

1.      Import

2.      Export

3.      Table

4.      Changing

5.      Source

6.      Exception


195)     List of Screen elements.

Ans      There are 13 screen elements:


                                                               i.      Input / output fields

                                                             ii.      Text fields

                                                            iii.      Checkbox

                                                           iv.      Radio button

                                                             v.      Push Button

                                                           vi.      Drop down list

                                                          vii.      Subscreen

                                                        viii.      Table control

                                                           ix.      Tabstrip control

                                                             x.      Custom control

                                                           xi.      Box

                                                          xii.      Status icons

                                                        xiii.      OK_CODE fields


196)     How many default Tab Strips are there? How to insert more Tabs in it?

Ans      There 2 default Tab strips. Screen painter attributes contain Tab Title, which is used to insert more tabs in tab strip.


197)     How to define Selection Screen?

Ans      There are 3 ways of defining selection screen:


1.      Parameters

2.      Select-options

3.      Selection-Screen


198)     What are the properties of Selection Screen?

Ans      There are 11 properties of selection screen:


1)      Default

2)      Memory ID

3)      Lowercase

4)      Visible length

5)      Obligatory

6)      Matchcode

7)      Check

8)      Checkbox

9)      Radiobutton Group

10)  No-display

11)  Modif ID



199)     What are the components of Selection Table?

Ans      There are four components of selection table:


Low, High, Sign, Options


200)     How to display or know if the value entered contains records or not?

Ans      SY-SUBRC


201)     What are the sequences of event block?


                                                               i.      Reports

                                                             ii.      Nodes

                                                            iii.      Data

                                                           iv.      Initialization

                                                             v.      At selection-screen

                                                           vi.      Start-of-selection

                                                          vii.      Get deptt

                                                        viii.      Get emp

                                                           ix.      Get deptt late

                                                             x.      End-of-selection

                                                           xi.      Form

                                                          xii.      Endform


202)     What are types of Select statements?

Ans      SELECT SINGLE <cols> ... WHERE ...

            SELECT [DISTINCT] <cols> ... WHERE ...

            SELECT <lines> * ...

203)     What are DML commands?

Ans      Select, Insert, Delete, Modify, Update.


204)     What is Asynchronous and Synchronous Update?

Ans      Asynchronous Update – The program does not wait for the work process to finish the

update. Commit Work.


            Synchronous Update – The program wait for the work process to finish the update.

Commit Work and Wait.


205)     Write syntax for Message Error (Report)?







            If SY-DBCNT = 0.





206)     How to see the list of all created session?

Ans      There are two method to see all sessions:


1)      SHDB (Recording)

2)      Write code in SE38 then save, check errors activate and execute it.




Batch input



207)     What are the function module in BDC?

Ans      There are three function module in BDC:



2)      BDC_INSERT



208)     Write the steps to execute session method.

Ans      Steps for execution Session Method:


1)      System

2)      Service

3)      Batch Input

4)      Session

5)      Choose Session Name

6)      Process

7)      Asks for Mode (Display All Screen, Display Errors & Background)

8)      Process


209)     What are the different types of mode (run code) in Call Transaction method?

Ans      There are three modes in Call Transaction:


                        A – Displays All Screen

                        E – Display Errors

                        N – Background Processing


210)     Write the transaction code of Customer Master Data, Pricing, Inquiry, Quotation and Sales Order.

Ans      Customer Master Data -           XD01

            Pricing                                      -

            Inquiry                                      -           VA11

            Quotation                                 -           VA21

            Sales Order                              -           VA01  

                                                            -           MM01


211)     What are the fields of Sales Order?

Ans      Transaction Code of Sales Order: VA01

            Table of Sales Order: VBAK


            Order Type      -           AUART

            Sales Org         –          VKORG

            Dist Channel     –          VTWEG

            Division            –          SPART

            Sales Office      -           VKBUR

            Sales Group     -           VKGRP


212)     What are different types of screen keywords?

Ans      There are four types of screen keywords: Module, Loop, Chain and Field.


213)     Write special commands of List.

Ans      There are four specials commands of lists: Write, Uline, Skip and New-Page


214)     Write the following in different manner.


            IF         ( A       GE       B )       AND    ( A       LE        C) 


Ans      IF         A         BETWEEN      B          AND    C


215)     What are the different types of ABAP statements?

Ans      There are six types of ABAP statements:


1)      Declarative -           Types, Data, Tables

2)      Modularization        -           Event Keywords and Defining Keywords

3)      Control                   -           If…Else, While, Case

4)      Call                        -           Perform, Call, Set User Command, Submit, Leave to

5)      Operational            -           Write, Add, Move

6)      Database                -           Open SQL & Native SQL


216)     How data is stored in cluster table? 

Ans      Each field of cluster table behaves as tables, which contains the number of entries. 


217)     What are client dependant objects in ABAP / SAP? 

Ans      SAP Script layout, text element, and some DDIC objects. 


218)     On which event we can validate the input fields in module programs? 

Ans      In PAI (Write field statement on field you want to validate, if you want to validate group of fields put in chain and End chain statement.) 


219)     In selection screen, I have three fields, plant material number and material group. If I input plant how do I get the material number and material group based on plant dynamically? 



to get material and material group for the plant. 


220)     How do you get output from IDOC? 

Ans      Data in IDOC is stored in segments; the output from IDOC is obtained by reading the data stored in its respective segments. 



221)     When top of the page event is triggered? 

Ans      After executing first write statement in start-of-selection event. 


222)     Can we create field without data element and how? 

Ans      In SE11, one option is available above the fields strip i.e. Data element / direct type. 


223)     Fields of VBAK Table. 

Ans      VBAK – Sales Document : Header Data


Details about Sales Organization, Distribution Channel, Division, Sales Group, Sales Office, Business Area, Outline Agreements, etc


224)     Which transaction code can I used to analyze the performance of ABAP program. 

Ans      Transaction Code AL21.


225)     How can I copy a standard table to make my own Z_TABLE?

Ans      Go to transaction SE11. Then there is one option to copy table. Press that button. Enter the name of the standard table and in the Target table enter Z_table name and press enter.


226)     What is runtime analysis? Have you used this?

Ans      It checks program execution time in microseconds. When you go to SE30. If you give desired program name in performance file. It will take you to below screen. You can get how much fast is your program.


227)     What is meant by performance analysis?






228)     How to transfer the objects? Have you transferred any objects?





229)     How did you test the developed objects?

Ans      There are two types of testing

- Negative testing 

- Positive testing


In negative testing, we will give negative data in input and we check any errors occurs.

In positive testing, we will give positive data in input for checking errors.


230)     How did you handle errors in Call Transaction?

Ans      We can create an internal table like 'bsgmcgcoll'. All the messages will go to internal table. We can get errors in this internal table.


Below messages are go to internal table. When you run the call transaction.


1)      TCODE

2)      Message Type

3)      Message Id

4)      Message Number

5)      MSGV1 

6)      MSGV2

7)      MSGV3

8)      MSGV4












231)     Among the Call Transaction and Session Method, which is faster?

Ans      Call transaction is faster then session method. But usually we use session method in real time...because we can transfer large amount of data from internal table to database and if any errors in a session, then process will not complete until session get correct.


232)     What are the difference between Interactive and Drill Down Reports?

Ans      ABAP/4 provides some interactive events on lists such as AT LINE-SELECTION (double click) or AT USER-COMMAND (pressing a button). You can use these events to move through layers of information about individual items in a list.


Drill down report is nothing but interactive report...drilldown means above paragraph only.


233)     How to pass the variables to forms?






234)     What is the table, which contain the details of all the name of the programs and forms?

Ans      Table contains vertical and horizontal lines. We can store the data in table as blocks. We can scroll depends upon your wish. And these all are stored in database (data dictionary).


235)     What are Standard Texts?






236)     What is the difference between Clustered Tables and Pooled Tables?

Ans      A pooled table is used to combine several logical tables in the ABAP/4 dictionary. Pooled tables are logical tables that must be assigned to a table pool when they are defined. 


Cluster table are logical tables that must be assigned to a table cluster when they are defined.  Cluster table can be used to store control data. They can also used to store temporary data or text such as documentation.


237)     What is PF-STATUS?

Ans      PF-Status is used in interactive report for enhancing the functionality. If we go to SE41, we can get menus, items and different function keys, which we are using for secondary list in interactive report.





238)     Among "Move" and "Move Corresponding", which is efficient one?

Ans      I guess, 'move corresponding' is very efficient then 'move' statement. Because usually we use this statement for internal table fields if we give move corresponding. Those fields only moving to other place (what ever you want).


239)     What are the Output Type, Transaction codes, Page Format?






240)     Where we use Chain and End chain? 

Ans      In Screen Programming


241)     Do you use select statement in loop…end loop, how will be the performance? To improve the performance? 






242)     In select-options, how to get the default values as current month first date and last date by default?  Eg: 1/12/2004 and 31/12/2004






243)     What are IDOCs? 

Ans      IDOCs are intermediate documents to hold the messages as a container.


244)     What are screen painter? Menu painter? Gui status? ..etc.  

Ans      dynpro - flow logic + screens.


menu painter - 


GUI Status - It is subset of the interface elements (title bar, menu bar, standard tool bar, push buttons) used for a certain screen.


The status comprises those elements that are currently needed by the transaction.


245)     What is screen flow logic? What are the sections in it? Explain PAI and PBO. 

Ans      The control statements that control the screen flow.


PBO - This event is triggered before the screen is displayed.

PAI - This event is responsible for processing of screen after the user enters the data and clicks the pushbutton.


246)     Overall how do you write transaction programs in SAP? 

Ans      Create program-SE93-create transaction code -Run it from command field.


      Create the transaction using object browser (SE80)

Define the objects e.g. screen, Transactions. – Modules – PBO, PAI.


247)     Does SAP has a GUI screen painter or not? If yes what operating systems is it available on? What is the other type of screen painter called? 

Ans      Yes.


            Operating System – Windows based

            Screen Painter – Alpha numeric Screen Painter



248)     What are step loops? How do you program page down page up in step loops? 

Ans      Step loops are repeated blocks of field in a screen.


      Step loops: Method of displaying a set of records.

Page down  & Page up: decrement / increment base counter

Index = base + sy-step1 – 1


249)     Is ABAP a GUI language? 



250)     Normally how many and what files get created when a transaction program is written? 

What is the XXXXXTOP program? 

Ans      Main program with A Includes


  2. Include for PBO
  3. Include for PAI
  4. Include for Forms


251)     What are the include programs? 

Ans      When the same sequence of statements in several programs is to be written repeatedly. They are coded in include programs (External programs) and are included in ABAP/4 programs.


252)     Can you call a subroutine of one program from another program? 

Ans      Yes, only external subroutines Using 'SUBMIT' statement.


253)     What are user exits? What is involved in writing them? What precautions are needed? 

Ans      User defined functionality included to predefined SAP standards. Point in an SAP program where a customer's own program can be called. In contrast to customer exits, user exits allow developers to access and modify program components and data objects in the standard system. On upgrade, each user exit must be checked to ensure that it conforms to the standard system.


There are two types of user exit:


  1. User exits that use INCLUDEs - These are customer enhancements that are called directly in the program.
  2. User exits that use TABLEs - These are used and managed using Customizing. Should find the customer enhancements belonging to particular development class.

254)     What are RFCs? How do you write RFCs on SAP side? 






255)     What are the general naming conventions of ABAP programs? 

Ans      Should start with Y or Z.


256)     How do you find if a logical database exists for your program requirements? 

Ans      SLDB-F4.


257)     How do you find the tables to report from when the user just tell you the transaction he uses? And all the underlying data is from SAP structures? 

Ans      Transaction code is entered in command field to open the table – Utilities –

Table contents display.


258)     How do you find the menu path for a given transaction in SAP? 



259)     What are the different modules of SAP? 

Ans      FI, CO, SD, MM, PP, HR.


260)     How do you get help in ABAP? 

Ans      HELP-SAP LIBRARY, by pressing F1 on a keyword.



261)     What are different ABAP/4 editors? What are the differences? 



262)     What are the different elements in layout sets? 

Ans      PAGES, Page windows, Header, Paragraph, Character String, Windows.


263)     Can you use if then else, perform..etc statements in sap script? 

Ans      Yes.


264)     What type of variables normally used in sap script to output data? 






265)     How do you number pages in SAP Script layout outputs? 

Ans      & page &         &next Page &


266)     What takes most time in SAP script programming? 



267)     How do you use tab sets in layout sets? 

Ans      Define paragraph with defined tabs.


268)     How do you backup SAP Script layout sets? Can you download and upload? How? 

Ans      SAP script backup :- In transaction SE71 goto Utilities -> Copy from client -> Give source form name, source client (000 default), Target form name.


Download :- SE71, type form name -> Display -> Utilities -> form info -> List -> Save to PC file.


Upload :- Create form with page, window, page window with the help of downloaded PC file. Text elements for Page windows to be copied from PC file.


269)     What are presentation and application servers in SAP? 

Ans      The application layer of an R/3 System is made up of the application servers and the message server. Application programs in an R/3 System are run on application servers. The application servers communicate with the presentation components, the database, and also with each other, using the message server.


270)     In an ABAP/4 program, how do you access data that exists on Presentation Server vs on an Application Server? 

Ans      Using loop statements and Flat 


271)     What are different data types in ABAP/4? 


Elementary - 

                        Predefined: C, D, F, I, N, P, T, X.

User defined: TYPES.

Structured - 

Predefined:    TABLES.

User defined: Field Strings and internal tables.


272)     What is difference between session method and Call Transaction? 

Ans      Call Transaction –


1.      Single transaction

2.      Synchronous processing

3.      Asynchronous and Synchronous update

4.      No session log is created

5.      Faster


Session –


  1. Multiple Transaction
  2. Asynchronous processing
  3. Synchronous update
  4. Session log is created
  5. Slower


273)     Setting up a BDC program where you find information from? 






274)     What has to be done to the packed fields before submitting to a BDC session. 

Ans      Fields converted into character type.


275)     What is the structure of a BDC sessions. 

Ans      BDCDATA (standard structure).


276)     What are the fields in a BDC_Tab Table. 



277)     What do you define in the domain and data element. 

Ans      Domain - Technical details are defined in Domain like data type, number of decimal places and length.


            Data Element – Functionality details are defined in Data elements – Field Text, Column Captions, Parameters ID, and Online Field Documentation.


278)     What is the difference between a pool table and a transparent table and how they are stored at the database level. 

Ans      Pool tables are a logical representation of transparent tables. Hence no existence at database level.


Where as transparent tables are physical tables and exist at database level.


Pool Table -


4)      Many to One Relationship.

5)      Table in the Dictionary has the different name, different number of fields, and the fields have the different name as in the R3 Table definition.

6)      It can hold only pooled tables.


Transparent Table –

4)      One to One relationship.

5)      Table in the Dictionary has the same name, same number of fields, and the fields have the same name as in the R3 Table definition.

6)      It can hold Application data.

279)     What is cardinality? 

Ans      For cardinality one out of two (domain or data element) should be the same for Ztest1 and Ztest2 tables. M:N Cardinality specifies the number of dependent(Target) and independent (source) entities which can be in a relationship.


280)     For Sales Document: Item Data, which table is used?

Ans      VBAP – Sales Document, Sales Document Item, Material Number, Material Entered, Batch Number, Material Group, Target Quantity in Sales Document.





281)     What are the types of tables?


1) Transparent table                                                      5) Pool table

2) Cluster table are data dictionary table objects            6) Sorted table

3) Indexed table                                                           7) Hash table

4) Internal tables.


282)     What are pooled table?

Ans      Table pools (pools) and table clusters (clusters) are special table types in the ABAP Dictionary. The data from several different tables can be stored together in a table pool or table cluster. Tables assigned to a table pool or table cluster are referred to as pooled tables or cluster tables.


A table in the database in which all records from the pooled tables assigned to the table pool are stored corresponds to a table pool. The definition of a pool consists essentially of two key fields (Tabname and Varkey) and a long argument field (Vardata).


Table Clusters Several logical data records from different cluster tables can be stored together in one physical record in a table cluster.


A cluster key consists of a series of freely definable key fields and a field (Pageno) for distinguishing continuation records. A cluster also contains a long field (Vardata) that contains the contents of the data fields of the cluster tables for this key. If the data does not fit into the long field, continuation records are created. Control information on the structure of the data string is still written at the beginning of the Vardata field. 


283)     What are Hashed Tables?

Ans      Hashed tables - This is the most appropriate type for any table where the main operation is key access. You cannot access a hashed table using its index. The response time for key access remains constant, regardless of the number of table entries. Like database tables, hashed tables always have a unique key. Hashed tables are useful if you want to construct and use an internal table, which resembles a database table or for processing large amounts of data. 







284)     How did you test the form u developed? How did you take the print of it?



285)     How many maximum number of fields can be there in a table?



286)     How many primary keys can be there in a table?



287)     What are the steps to perform Performance Tuning? What will you do increase the performance of your system?



288)     What is mandatory in Screen Painter?




289)     If u are entering large amount of data, and system fails, then how many records will be entered or no records or half records will be entered?



290)     In Screen Painter, if two fields are mandatory and user do not want to enter anything but he wants to come out of the screen, then what will he do?



291)     What is At-Exit and User-Exit?



292)     How will you find the standard tables, you only know there names like Customer Master Table?



293)     How will change Development Class?



294)     How will you call both Function Module and Function Group?



295)     What is ALV?



296)     What is Chain-Field & Chain-Loop?



297)     What is Value-Ranges?



298)     How will you provide help for value request particular fields?



299)     How will you find relationship between two or more tables?



300)     In BDC’s, if you forget to write one field, then how will you modify that field in your BDC program?



301)     Detail concept of Transport Organizer.



302)     Which is slower “Select *” and “Select field1,field2”?



303)     What are the errors in “Call Transaction”?



304)     What is QA and production?




305)     How will you display only 10 lines in Report?



306)     In BDC, if out of 10 records, 7 are successful and there are 3 records with some missing fields, how will you modify those fields? 



307)     How will you set breakpoint to 100 messages?



308)     How will you set Reports to Background job?



309)     Name the tables, which is used to see all the transaction available.

Ans      See tables, TSTC and TSTCT for all the transaction available


310)     List of SAP supplied Programs.


Details (5)


Purchase Requisitions


Material Master


Vendor Master


Customer Master


Sales Order









Upload / Download (Import / Export)


Convert Page Format


Text File Inconsistent


Copy Table Across Client


Transfer Scripts Files Across System (Not Clients)


Comparing The Contents Of A Table


Change The Development Class





Submit A BDC Job With An Internal Batch Number


Release Batch Input Sessions





Table Adjustment Across Clients


Extended Program List


Get The Oracle Release


Display All Instance Parameters


Substitution / Validation Utility


Check Passwords Of Users SAP And DDIC In All Clients


Last Users Last Login



311)     How to schedule a Report in background? what is the use of background job please explain about it?

Ans      There are 3 ways to schedule in background:





The easiest of the three is SA38.


Why background? In foreground jobs are only allowed a certain amount of runtime. Long running jobs usually times out in foreground, and have to be run background. Some customers has day-end jobs to fill custom tables, and these only run late at night, so they are scheduled as background jobs as well. There may be any of a hundred reasons why you want a job to run in background instead of foreground, and these are only 2 of them.